On October 30, 2018 the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued U.S. Patent No. 10,113,167 (‘the ‘167 patent), to The Regents of the University of California, the University of Vienna, and Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier (collectively, “CVC”). The patent covers compositions of optimized guide RNA formats (including single guide and dual guide formats) that are widely used in the industry. U.S. Patent No. 10,000,772, which granted on June 19, 2018, claims the use of such compositions to modify target DNA. Both patents claim priority to a U.S. provisional application, filed by CVC on May 25, 2012. This application broadly encompasses the CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing technology invented by Drs. Jennifer Doudna and Emmanuelle Charpentier and their colleagues.