On June 4, 2019 the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued U.S. Patent No. 10,308,961 (‘the ‘961 patent), to The Regents of the University of California, the University of Vienna, and Dr. Emmanuelle Charpentier (collectively, “CVC”). The patent covers methods of editing genes and controlling gene expression in a cell, including enabling genes to be modified, activated or repressed. These methods are not limited to single guide RNA and can be applied to both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The ‘961 patent claims earliest priority to a U.S. provisional application, filed by CVC on May 25, 2012.